Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is a process used to regulate the output of power plants to meet changes in electricity demand; In a deregulated environment, the traditional centralized control of the power system is replaced by market-based operations, where individual generators compete to sell electricity to the grid; AGC in this context plays a critical role in ensuring power system stability and maintaining the balance between electricity supply and demand; AGC algorithms take into account various factors such as real-time pricing, economic dispatch, and the integration of renewable energy sources; Advanced control techniques and smart grid technology are also employed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of AGC in deregulated power systems; The role of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) is also crucial in facilitating AGC in a deregulated environment.
the framework of electricity utilities all over the world has undergone significant changes. Also, electric power companies face many challenges due to the increasing electricity demand. It is very critical in power systems that
electrical energy should be delivered to consumers with reasonable quality and reliability.
The conventional way of supplying electricity has been through vertically integrated utilities
which are regulated in all their operations i.e., generation, transmission, and distribution by
legal monopolistic entities. Such firms were closely supervised by regulatory
agencies or under strict political supervision. Electricity utilities have been under
pressure from 1970s, for a variety of reasons, such as the oil crisis, increased demand, increased
environmental impact, speculation of a relationship between the industry and its
regulators, and evolving technology. Weak planning and environmental practices, price
spikes, and high construction costs of hydro, coal and nuclear power plants have also
Traditional business systems have opposed innovative energy-saving initiatives or the creation of
small-scale renewable energy technologies and consumers have very few options available. Customers
are required to pay an average tariff in a vertically integrated system, as it is often
difficult to distinguish the costs involved in production, transmission and distribution.
The industry has therefore been vulnerable to transition and the system, and all its functions,
remained the same for several years, within a certain
geographic region controlled by a monopoly.